Road conditions have improved in most African countries in recent years, as governments have strived to increase the density of their road networks and carry out institutional reforms. Tremendous progress has been made in establishing institutions to manage and maintain Africa’s roads, for example, but still only one in three rural Africans has access to an all-season road. Unable to reach urban markets, millions are trapped in subsistence agriculture. In cities, road construction has not kept pace with urbanization. In many countries, road maintenance remains inadequate. Even the Trans-African Highway, the symbol of modern Africa, has long gaps.